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PLANT BOARD 

May 1943 



E-597 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT 0? AGRICULTURE 
A GP I C ULTU RAL RESEARCH ADMINISTRATION 
BBREATJ OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE 



INSECTICIDAL USES OF NICOTINE AND TOBACCO 
A condensed Summary of the Literature, 1690-1934 
By N, E, Mclndoo, Division" of Insecticide Investigations 

CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction ------------------------- 2 

History of insectieidal uses of tobacco and nicotine ----- - 2 

I, Classes of insecticides --------------- 2 

Contact insecticides --------------- 3 

Fumigants- -------------------- 3 

Stomach poisons- ----------------- 4 

II, Repellents, or deterrents -------------- 4 

III, Kinds of nicotine preparations- ----------- 4 

Nicotine compounds ---------------- 4 

Proprietary nicotine compounds ---------- 4 

Other nicotine preparations- ----------- 5 

IV, How nicotine kills insects- ------------- 5 

V # Kinds of animals against which nicotine was effective 6 

Insects, mites, and ticks controlled by nicotine ------- 6 

I, Homoptera ---------------------- 6 

Plant lice, or aphids (Aphiidae) --------- 6 

Jumping plant lice (Psyllidae) ---------- 10 

Leafhcppers (Cicadellidae) ------------ 11 

Mealybugs, scale insects, and coccids (Coccidae) - 11 

Species belonging to other families of Honoptf:ra - 12 

II, Heteroptera --------------------- 12 

Leaf bug$ or capsids (Miridae) ---------- 12 

Lacebugs, or tingitids ( Tingitidae )- - -- -- -- 13 

Chinch' bug and other lygaeids (Lygaeidae)- - - - - 13 

Squash bug and other coreids (Coreidae)- ----- 13 

Pentatomid bugs (Fentatcmidae) and other Heteroptera 13 

III, Thysanoptera, or thrips --------------- 13 

IT, Diptcra » - - 14 

V, ' Hymenoptera --------------------- 14 

VI, Coleoptera- --------------------- 14 

VII, Lepidoptera --------------------- 14 

VIII, Acarina ----------------------- 15 

IX, External parasites on animals and man -------- 16 



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INTRODUCTION 

In September 1936 the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 
of the United States Department of Agriculture issued Part II of "A 
Bibliography of Nicotine" under the subtitle "The Insecticidal Uses of 
Nicotine and Tobacco," by N. E. Kclndoo, R. C. Roark, and R, L. Busbey. 
This Part II was issued as E-392, a mimeographed circular of 628 pages 
in three sections, containing 2,497 abstracts, which include the published 
information from 1690 to the fall cf 1934, In trying to compress the most 
important data contained in the original 623 pages into this brief sum- 
mary, the writer had a difficult task, chiefly because much of the infor- 
mation was fragmentary and contradictory, and the information on a given 
species was often widely scattered under two or three different scientific 
names. 

In the present summary the information on the most important 
species that had been controlled more or less successfully before 1934 
by the use of nicotine is stated as briefly as possible. Nicotine has 
been recommended!/ against a wide range of insects which are here grouped 
by orders, families, and species. The unversed reader might infer from 
this large list of insects that nicotine is a universal insecticide and 
that it is the most effective means of controlling the majority of the 
species discussed. To the contrary, nicotine has a limited use and plays 
a minor part in the control of many of the species mentioned in this 
review. Prior to 1934 nicotine was the best remedy known for certain 
species, but' more recently other insecticides, particularly oil sprays 
and rotenone, have taken that place. To emphasize the importance of the 
species mentioned, the present circular includes the geographic distri- 
bution of many of them, the countries being arranged in the chronological, 
order of the references. 

HIS TOE Y OF IFSECTICIDAL USES OF TOBACCO AND NICOTINE 

I. CLASSES OF INSECTICIDES 

Insecticides are generally divided into three classes, based on 
the way they are applied to the insects. The contact insectici des com- 
prise both liquids and solids. In the literature on nicotine the liquids 
are described as washes, tobacco water, infusions, decoctions, tobacco 
juice, extracts, and. dips; and the solids, as powders and dusts. The 
fumigants are called smokes, fumes, or vapors, and are produced by 
burning or heating tobacco in solid or liquid form, Vihen the liquids 

"TJ This should be understood throughout this summary to mean that the 

writers of the various articles listed in the bibliography recommended 
the specified treatments. No appraisement by the Department of 
Agriculture is implied in citing the various preparations mentioned 
or statements regarding them. 



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and solids are applied so as to be taken into the stomach they are called 
stfmach poiso ns. Tobacco and nicotine are used chiefly as contact insecti- 
cTcles and fumigants, and very little as stomach poisons. 

Contact Insecticides 

Tobacco was first utilized ir. 1690 as an insecticide, a wash having 
been applied to pear trees in France to control the poar lacebug. Tobacco 
water and tobacco powder were recommended in 1763 as a remedy for plant lice 
in France, In acme cases tobacco dust .was used successfully in 1773 against 
apliids and the red spider in England, In 1800 tobacco was in common use as 
an insecticide in England, Tobacco dust was blown from a powder puff, such 
as hairdressers used, upon aphid- infested trees, or Scotch snuff was merely 
dusted upon the insects. Infested leaves were also dipped in a strong 
tobacco infusion. Tobacco was first used as an insecticide in America at 
Albany, N, Y,, in 1814, tobacco water having been applied against sucking 
insects. In the same year a force pump was employed to squirt a decoction 
upon caterpillars and a leaf roller in England. Tobacco juice was recom- 
mended In 1829 for the woolly aphid in England, Tobacco extract was first 
mentioned in 1859, nut in the 1880' s and 1890' s it was commonly referred 
to in the literature. The word "dip" was first mentioned in 1896, and 
later it was frequently used, 

Fumigants 

In 1773 tobacco was put in an iron pipe which was heated and the 
smoke from it was blown onto infested plants by the use of a bellows. 
Another type of' fumigating bellows was used and described in the same year. 
In 1800 a pair of bellows was used to force smoke under a tent which had 
been put over a nut tree infested with aphids. In 1828 a tent on wheels 
to go over a grapevine trellis was recommended in America, and in 1839 
growers were advised to burn paper saturated with tobacco extract under 
a tent stretched over poach and nectarine trees to kill aphids. In 1851 
a fumi gator which burned tobacco and ejected the smoko was invented. In 
1879 a specially constructed hood was invented and used in England, This 
was put over rose bushes infested with aphids, and tobacco smoke was con- 
ducted by pipes into the hood. In 1902 the Geneva fumigator was employed 
to fumigate aphids. 

Turning to the use of tobacco indoors, it was becoming the custom 
to use tobacco smoke in greenhouses as early as 1825, and in 1877 mention 
is found of putting tobacco juice on a hot metal plate in order to make 
a dense smoke in a box containing aphid- infested plants. In 1884 tobacco 
extract was put on the heating pipes in a greenhouse, and in 1895 red-hot 
bars and in 1897 hot bricks were used to vaporize the extract. The method 
of dropping the liquid on hot metal was the forerunner of the present 
aerosol method. The most common method of fumigating with tobacco, however, 
was to evo.porate the tobacco extracts in shallow vessels over charcoal, 
kerosene, or alcohol stoves. 



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Stomach Poisons 

y v r' ! ', ' >' , ~ J" .< ' 

Not until recently did writers discuss how nicotine affects insects, 
and consequently their papers do not mention nicotine or tobacco as stomach 
poisons. In 1911 it was observed that the ingestion of leaves treated with 
nicotine caused characteristic convulsions of flea beetle larvae, which 
died shortly afterward. Larvae of vine moths and beetles were partially 
co3itrolled in 1913 as a result of their eating nicotine-treated leaves. 
Nicotine was fed to honeybees in 1916, and the symptoms of poisoning were 
carefully studied for the first time. It was shox.n in 1932 that nicotine 
compounds acted slowly as stomach poisons against the walnut husk fly 
(R hago letis suavi s ( O.S . ) ) . 

II. REPELLENTS, OR DETERRENTS 

Repellents are not really insecticides, but since they repel insects 
or deter them from doing damage, their effects and those of insecticides 
are. usually discussed together. Tobacco, because of its strong, penetrating 
odor, is considered an insect repellent, and as such was first used in 1734. 

III. KINDS OF NICOTINE PREPARATIONS 

In addition to the previously mentioned tobacco and nicotine prepara- 
tions there are about 80 more, and the history of nicotine as an insecticide 
after 1885 pertains mostly to them. In regard to most of them it will not 
be possible to give the exact dates in which they were first prepared and 
used, but the first dates to appear in the literature are those that should 
be no bed here. 

Nicotine Compounds 

From 1900 to 1934, 15 nicotine compounds or salts were prepared and 
used, and since 1934 several others have been added to the list, although 
these are not to be considered here. The 15, with the first dates which 
occur in the abstracts or could be found in notes and the original literature, 
are as follows: Nicotine sulfate (1900); acetate, lactate, nitrate, and 
trichloroacetatc (1913); resinate (1917); oleate, palmitate, and stearate 
(1918); tartrate (1919); salicylate (1927); caseinate (1929); tannate (1930); 
alginate (1931); and bentonite (1934). 

Proprietary Nicotine Preparations 

The list of proprietary preparations contains 63 trade names, both 
domestic and foreign, most of which were patented, and many of which seem 
to have been short-lived. These names did not represent 63 different 
preparations because one preparation occasionally had two names or one name 
v/as later substituted for another. Gold leaf Tobacco Extract (1885), which 
was apparently the first of the proprietary preparations, was later called 
Black Leaf Tobacco Extract. From 1885 to 1900, 12 other preparations, 
including some important dips, were put on the market. In 1892 the first 
standardized nicotine extract, called Rose Leaf, was placed on the market. 



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It contained slightly less than 3 percent of nicotine and for many years 
was more efficient and more widely us«*d than any other form of nicotine. 
During the next decade 11 more preparations were introduced, half of 
which proved to be excellent insecticides. A few of these are still being 
used| In 1908 a patent was granted covering a method of producing a con- 
centrated solution of nicotine sulfate containing as much as 40 percent of 
nicotine. This sulfate was first called Nico-Sul, but in 1910 it was placed 
on the market under the name of Black Leaf 40, From 1911 to 1920 about 22 
additional proprietary insecticides were introduced, three-fourths of which 
were foreign, A new type of nicotine-bearing dustj called Nicodust, was 
first placed on the market in 1920, From 1921 to 1934, 16 more trade names 
were added to the list. Those most frequently found in the literature 
include Nico-Fumc Fumigating Powder (1922), Vapona (1933), Black Leaf 50, 
ar.d Black Leaf 155 (1934). 

Other Nicotine" Preparations 

In America dependence has been largely upon the proprietary prepara- 
tions, but in Europe, particularly in France and Germany, the proprietary 
products seem not to have been widely used, chiefly because the preparation 
of nicotine insecticides was controlled by the government. The State 
factories of France in 1909 prepared ordinary tobacco juice and titrated 
juice for the agriculturists. The nicotine content of the former depended 
on its density v/hich, since 1882, was determined by a hydrometer in degrees 
Baumel The titrated juice, containing sulfates of nicotine and sodium and 
organic salts, rath a nicotine content of 10 percent, was sold as titrated 
nicotine. In 1924 the French Government issued nicotine in three forms — 
ordinary juice, an extract containing nicotine sulfate, and condensed 
juice (a mixture of the other two), 

IV. HOW NICOTINE KILLS INSECTS 

A little casual information on the physiological effect of nicotine 
is to be found in numerous papers from 1895 to 1934, but only a few studies 
were originally planned to determine how nicotine kills insects. A few. 
other papers give additional information which is probably correct but not 
supported by experiments. It was the fundamental information on this point 
that led to the preparation and use of nicotine dust. 

The symptoms of nicotine poisoning in the experiments with bees in 
1916 were, divided into three stages. First, bees that had eaten nicotine 
soon became abnormal in behavior, and the legs and wings were partly paralyzed. 
Second, the paralysis progressed from partial. to complete, the hind legs 
and hind wings usually being the first to be completely paralyzed, then 
followed the middle legs and front wings, and, finally the front legs. Third, 
the bees wore apparently dead except for slight movements of the head appen- 
dages, legs, and abdomen. Regardless of how nicotine is applied, it seems 
to kill by motor paralysis; that is, it first affects the nerve centers that 
control muscular movement. Its action on the motor centers causes complete 
paralysis, which is supposed to be brought about by absorption of the 
nitrogen atom of the poison by the nitrogen-fat compounds that make up the 
nerve tissue, with the result that further absorption of oxygen by the cells 
is stopped and the insect is killed. Since 1916 the word "paralysis" has 
been repeatedly used in connection with the effects of various insecticides, 
but incorrectly, perhaps in most instances, because there are very few 
insccticidal nerve poisons. 



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Until recently it -was thought that nicotine spray solutions and 
dusts passed into the spiraeles and caused death by suffocation. It is 
now known that spray solutions, without soap or other spreader, do not 
pass through the spiracles into the tracheae. If they contain a spreader, 
however, they do pass into the tracheae, although their presence inside 
the insects does not necessarily cause death. Only nicotine vapor from 
spray solutions, exhalations from nicotine dust, tobacco powder, or from 
dried films of spray solutions, and fumes from "burning tobacco pass far 
into the tracheao and are widely distributed to all the tissues, particularly 
to the nerve tissue, which is the first to be affected fatally. 

V. KINDS OF ANmALS AGAINST VfHICH NICOTINE YlkS EFFECTIVE 

According to the literature prior to 1934, nicotine was effective 
and had beer, recommended against only those organisms having soft bodies 
and others of minute sise, such as mites, thrips, aphids, psyllids, leaf- 
hoppers, crawling scale inseets, capsids, laeebugs, lice on poultry, 
midges, mushroom flies, sawflies, and grapevine moths. These and a few 
mare are discussed somewhat in detail in the following pages, being 
arranged by orders, families, a»d species. 

INSECTS, KITES, AKB TICKS CONTROLLED BY NICOTINE 

I . HW'OJTSEA 

Plant Lice, or Aphids (Aphiidae) 

TToolly apple aphid .--The application of nicotine has usually effected 
a satisfactory control of the woolly apple aphid ( Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm. )) 
since 1814, but as this species is covered with a woolly or waxy covering a 
spreader is always required ir. the wash or spray solution. This aphid'becurs 
in two forms— the aerial form living on the limbs and leaves, and the root 
form on the roots. It appears to be universally distributed with the apple 
tree, for according to the literature it has been treated in 16 countries. 
In Europe up to the 1890* s the wash or spray mixture consisted of tobacco 
juice, water, and soap, and sometLmos sulfur or lime was added. After 1898 
concentrated tobacco juice, whose nicotine content was determined . 
by the hydrometer or by titration, was incorporated with water and soap, 
and it was common in Europe to add alcohol, sodium or potassium carbonate, 
or even oil. After 1910 it became common practice to use Black Leaf (3 per- 
cent nicotine) and Black Leaf 40 with soap or an oil omulsion in the following 
countries (chronological arrangement ) : United States, New Zealand, Tasmania, 
Australia, Korea, and Canada, 

Since 1884 tobacco has been used as a remedy for aphids on the roots. 
The method is to remove the earth around the base of the tree and over the 
roots, then to put an abundant supply of v/aste tobacco or tobacco dust 
against the wood bearing the aphids, and finally to cover the tobacco and 
roots with earth. The insects in time should be killed or driven away, but 
this method is often unsuccessful. 



Other apple aphids, — Ir. all there are sever. :r eight species : f apple 
aphids* "but as their treatments do not differ vridely, only two other species 
7ri.ll be discussed here. Since 1867 the apple aphid ( Aphis pcmi Deg. ) has 
been controlled on apple trees frith nicotine in Russia, the United States, 
Canada, England, Germany, Kor^ay, and Ireland, In the earlier years, ?.:se 
Leaf, Black Leaf, Aphis Punk, Nikoteen, Niccticide (40-percent nicotine), 
tctaccc dust, and hcne-ra.de tobacco extracts vrere used in sprays or as furd.- 
gants for this aphid. Since 1915, particularly in the United States and 
Canada, Black Leaf 40 has been used as a delayed-dcraant spray, "which is 
generally incorporated "with lir.e-sulfur but sometimes trith soap, an oil 
emulsion, Penotrol, caustic soda, or potassium ole&te. 

Z'r.e rosy apple aphid ( Anuraphis rcseus 3aker) appears to have been 
treated only in the United States and Canada. Ihe best spray used against 
it "B&s a combination in the proportion of 100 gallons of rrinter— strength 
line-sulfur and 5/4 pint of 40-percent nicotine. Ihe best tine for treat- 
ment Tsas during the delayed- dormant period just tdien the buds "v^re beginning 
to shot; green, ZTicctine has been used effectively against ti-.is aphii since 1902, 

Peach aphids, — Ihere seem to be four or five species of aphids that 
infest peach tress. Ihe black peach aphid ( Anuraphis persicae-niger (Sr.dth)) 
has been controlled with nicotine since _:~c in 7rai-.ee, and for =. snorter 
time in the United States, Australia, I only, and South Africa, 3efore 1910, 
tobacco decoction, tobacco dust, Black Leo.f, and Black Leaf lip - ere used. 
After 1910 it :as corv.cn to use Black Leaf 40, sheep dips, and ether 
standardised tobacco extracts in kerosene or petrol eum evulsion, soap 
solution, or lime- sulfur. Nursery trees to be transplanted -vrere fumigated 
or dipped in a nicotine spray mixture, Aphids on the roots of peach trees 
■were controlled by putting tobaoco poTnier on the roots as already described 
for the vrcolly apple aphid. 

The green peach aphid (Ityzus persicae (Sulo.V infests vany plants 
besides the peach Tree. According _ o the literature, nicotine controlled 
it on peach"/ j potato, tobacco, beet, donate, pepper, spinach, eggplant, 
cauliflower, and other vegetables. Nicotine "was first used against it in ; 
1903, and it vas treated in: the united States, Hat.aii, Australia, Sown 
Africa, Tasmania, France, Italy, England, and India, The most common spray 
ccr.sds^ed cf 40-percent nicotine as the sulfate trith soap, but in l?2c car- 
bolated tobacco extract uns used in Italy and tobacco decoction frith soap 
in India as late as 1952, Sprouting seed potatoes vere fur.' gated v.tth 
nicotine and tobacco dust, and this species vas most easily controlled on 
vegetables by usint 3 rercont nicotine dust. 



In lists of plants the order is governed by the number of references 
t»ere cited from the literature. 



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Spi rea aphi d.- -This species, Aphis spiraecola Patch, also called the 
green cirrus aphid", is important economically because it infests citrus trees 
in Florida, It has been controlled with nicotine since 1924, Sprays con- 
taining 40^-percent nicotine sulfate and soap or sodium oleate were found 
successful against it, and a 3-percent nicotine dust was particularly recom- 
mended. 

Black cherry aphid. --Tobacco and nicotine have been" used as a control 
for the "black cherry aphid (Myzus ceras i (F, )) on cherry trees since 187'2, 
In Germany it was treated with a tobacco decoction and soap. In the United 
States the following were used: Black Leaf, Black Leaf 40, or other 40- 
percent nicotine with or without soap, lime-sulfur, or a miscible oil; a 50- 
pcrcont nicotine sulfate plus potassium oleatej Nicodust; and lime-nicotine 
dust. In Russia it was fumigated with tobacco dust or sprayed with a car- 
bolated tobacco emulsion. In Canada it was sprayed with 40-percent nicotine 
sulfate and limo-sulfur. In France it was treated with a nicotine-soap 
spray heated to 212° F. 

Other fruit aphids » — Aocordin g to the literature reviewed, many other 
species of fruit aphids have been successfully controlled with nicotine. 
These include 1 species on almond, 1 on banana, 2 on citrus, 6 on currant 
and gooseberry, 1 on fig, 2 or more on grape, 1 on loganberry, 6 on nuts, 
1 on. pear, 2 or 3 on plum, 3 on prune, 1 on raspberry, and 4 on strawberry. 

Bean aphid.— During the past decade the "bean aphid ( Aphis rumicis L. ) 
has become the standard insect for testing contact insecticides, as it is easily 
reared and is more easily kill eel than most aphids. Since 1915 it has been 
readily controlled with weak concentrations of nicotine. It infests a wide 
variety of plants, but the literature on nicotine mention's only the following: 
Beans, beets, tomatoes, artichokes, sorrels, chrysanthemums, Euonymus, and 
nasturtiums. This species has been treated in the United States, Canada, 
Russia, Denmark, Algiers, Italy, Czechoslovakia, England, Franco, and 
Cyprus. Against it the following have been used: Nicotine (40- and 50- 
percent); nicotine sulfate (25-, 30-, and 40-percent); nicotine resinate; 
nicotine ' oleate; nicotine with sodium oleate, potassium stearate, calcium 
caseinate, Penetrol, or soap; sulfur impregnated with 2 percent of nicotine 
sulfate; 5-percent Nicodust; 3-percent nicotine sulfate dust used at the 
rate of 40 pounds per acre; and almost perfect control on lima beans was 
obtained by one treatment with a 1,6-percent nicotine dust applied with a 
self-mixing power duster equipped with a canvas drag which covered the rows 
for 10 feet behind the duster. 

Cabbage and turnip aphids,— The cabbage aphid ( Brevicoryne brassica e 
(L.)) has boon controlled with nicotine since 1908 and has been treated in 
Australia, the United States, Hawaii, Italy, and Canada, Tobacco tea plus 
soap, carbolated tobacco extract plus sodium carbonate, Black Leaf, Nico- 
Fume, Black Leaf 40 with or without soap or miscible oil, tobacco dust, 
and nicotine dust have been used against it. 

The turnip aphid ( Hhopalosiphum pse udobrassicae (Davis)), also some- 
times called the false cabbage aphid, has been controlled with nicotine in 
the United States since 1915, 40-perccnt nicotine sulfate sprays and nico- 
tine dusts having been the most popular controls up to 1934, although more 




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recently rotenone has become the favored material. 

Pot ato aphid s . — There are only two aphids -that seriously attack 
potato plants. One of these, the green peach aphid, has been discussed. 
The other is the potato aphid ( Macrosiphum sol anif ol ii (Ashm. )), which, 
however, infests plants other than the potato. This species has been 
controlled \/ith nicotine since 1915, having been mentioned as so treated 
only in the United States and Canada, The best remedies up to 1934 were 
a spray consisting of nicotine sulfate and soap, 2- and 3-percent nicotine 
dusts, and a dust composed of tobacco powder and hydrated lime. 

Two other aphids infest potatoes, but they are unimportant, for 
each was mentioned only three times. The remedy for them was the same as 
given above. 

Pea aphid . —The pea aphid (Macrosiphum pisi (Kalt,)) has been treated 
in Canada and the United States with tobacco preparations since 1909, but 
not always successfully. Nicotine sulfate sprays and dusts were often 
recommended, and the most economical remedy seemed to "be a 3-percent nicotine 
dust applied to rows of peas with a tractor duster having a canvas trailer. 

Aph ids on oth er vegetables, — Ten other aphids on vegetables have 
been briefly discussed in the literature. Tobacco extracts controlled all 
of them — 3 species on sugar beet and lettuce in Europe, 2 each on tomatoes 
and celery in the United States, 1 each on beans and artichokes in the 
United States, and 1 on parsnips in Canada, 

Hop aphid , — This species, Phorodon humuli (Schr,), had been easily 
controlled since 1904 with nicotine because it is perhaps the most easily 
killed of all aphids. It was treated in the United States, Bohemia, 
Germany, Canada, and England, Against it were used tobacco decoctions, 
Black Leaf,' Black Leaf Dip, nicotine sulfate plus soap or flour paste, 5- 
percent Ivicodust, and 1-percent nicotine dust. The last seems to be the 
most frequently used in hop yards. 

A p ple grain aph id. — This insect, Rh opalosiphun prun ifo liae (Fitch), 
has been treated with nicotine in Canada and the United States since 1914, 
The best remedy was nicotine sulfate plus lime sulfur. 

Melon or cotton aphid,— This species, A phis gossypii Glov., attacks 
a wide variety of plants, but the abstracts mention only cotton, melons, 
cucumbers, gourds, and hibiscus, the first two being attacked the most 
seriously. It is widely distributed, and has been treated with nicotine, 
first in the United States, then later in Belgium, Nyasaland, Mexico, 
Chile, Canada, French West Africa, Bermuda, Peru, Russia, and Brazil. In 
1901 tobacco decoction, Rose Leaf, Skabcure Dip, and Nikoteen Punk v/ere 
used against .it, but since then Block Leaf, nicotine sulfate solution, free 
nicotines, and various tobacco-fumigating preparations have been used. 
Nicotine dusts were first tried against it in 1921 and since then they have 
gradually becomo more popular. In 1926 a 2-percent dust, applied at the 
rate of 35 to 40 pounds per acre on melons, was recommended, A dust com- 
posed of 94 parts of calcium arsenate and 6 parts of nicotine sulfate solu- 
tion (40-percent nicotine), applied at the rate of 3 or 9 pounds per acre of 
cotton, was recommended against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boh.) 
and this aphid. 



r 



- 10- 

Aphids on conifers .-- In the cited literature six species are dis- 
cussed. All seen to "be economically important and they were successfully 
controlled on spruce, fir, and pine trees with tobacco extract, nicotine 
(98-percent), or nicotine sulfate solution, each with the addition of soap 
or an oil; or with nicotine dust. The eastern spruce gall aphid ( Chermes 
abieti s L.) was treated in Poland and the United States, C_, cooleyi Gill, 
in the United States, C, picea e Ratz, in Germany and Switzerland, Pineus 
pini (Macq,) in Norway and the British Isles, the pine bark aphid (P, 
strobi (Htig,)) in the United States, and P, similis (Gill,) in Nova 
"Scotia and the United States, 

Aphids on other trees .— 'Nine other aphids were controlled with nico- 
tine but were discussed only briefly. These are one species each on balsam, 
boxelder, Carolina poplar, willow, and tuliptree, and tw» species each on 
elms and other shade trees. The species on the willow was treated in 
France and all the others in the United States, 

Ro se aphids , — There are at least two species of aphids which infest 
rose busTTes, They are among the aphids most resistant to nicotine but can 
be readily controlled by applying heavy doses. The most common, the rose 
aphid ( Llacrosiphum rosae (L,)), has been controlled with nicotine since 
1307 and was treated in Belgium, Germany, the United States, France, and 
Ireland, Sprays consisting of nicotine sulfate solution and soap and 5- 
percent Nicodust were recommended as remedies. In greenhouses, fumigation, 
spraying, and dusting vdth nicotine preparations were practiced. 

The small green rose aphid ( Capitophorus rosarum (Kalt.)) was 
treated only in France and the United States, 

Chrysanthemum aph id. — This species, Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Gill,), 
has been controlled with nicotine since 1911 and was treated in Hawaii and 
the continental United States, Black Leaf 40 plus soap was the usual remedy. 

Aphid s on other flower s ,— Four aphid.s infesting other flowers were 
easily controlled with nicotine. They were on the leaves and bulbs of 
tulip and iris and on violets in Europe, and on gladiolus corms and geraniums 
in the United States, 

Jumping Plant Lice (Psyllidae) 

Apple auoker. — The apple sucker ( Psylla mali (Schmb.)) has been con- 
trolled with nicotine since 1913, It was treated in Germany, Russia, 
England, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, Nova Scotia, Sweden, Czechosolovakia, 
Finland, and Switzerland, The common method was to spray vdth nicotine or 
tobacco extract plus soap. In Russia it was successfully controlled by 
fumigating orchards vdth tobacco dust mixed with straw. 

Pear psylla. — This psyllid, Psyll a pyricola Foerst,, was first 
treated in 1842, in England on pear trees, vdth a tobacco infusion, but 
the practical control of it seems to date from 1912, when Black Leaf 40 
and soap were used. It has been treated in England, the United States, 
Canada, Germany, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, and Italy vdth niootine sulfate solu- 
tion vdth soap or line-sulfur. Various nicotine dusts have also been recom- 
mended against it, and a 2-percent dust seems to have been the most economical. 



- 11 - 



Seven other psyllids have been controlled with nicotine, but these 
species are not economically important. 

Leaf hoppers (Cioadellidae) 

Pota to le af hoppe r, — This insect, Emp oasca fabae (Harr.), is also known 
as the apple leaf hopper or bean leaf hopper and as the potato jassid. It has 
been treated with nicotine sinco 1908 in the United States and Canada, In 
most instances nicotine sulfate as either spray or dust v/as recommended as a 
satisfactory control, but in a few instances it was inefficient or was not 
so good as bordeaux mixture, which acted as a repellent. 

Grap e leafhoppers »— Those leafhoppers, Erythroneura comes (Say) and 
related forms, woro' treated with nicotine in the United States and Canada, 
In 1828 tobacco juice was only partially effective and a tobacco fumiga- 
tion tent on wheels to go over the grapevine trellis v/as recommended as 
effective, but "was soon discarded as impracticable in vineyards, A more 
serious attempt to control these leafhoppers was begun in 1910. The nymphs 
are easily killed with nicotine, but in order to control the adults the 
dosages must be very strong. Black Leaf 40 with scap, bordeaux mixture, 
or other substances added to the sprays were used. Nicotine dusts, if 
unusually strong (7,5 or 10 percent), were generally efficient. 

Rose leafhopper.- — This jassid, Typhi ocyba rosae (L. ), v/as treated 
in the T^TFedY S'-lJa : Ee~s7~"Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, and Czechoslovakia, 
It v/as controlled by using nicotine with coap, Black Leaf 40, and nicotine 
dust. 

Other leafhoppers,— About two dozen 'other leafhoppers have been 
oontrolled with nicotine. The most important of these appears to have 
been the v.hibe apple leafhoppor (Typ hi ocyba pomaria McAtee), 



Mealybugs, Scale Insects, and Coccids (Coccidae) 

Citrus mealybug,— This coccid, Pseudococcu s citri (Risso), has been 
treated with nicotine ' s ince 1911 in the United States, Uganda, Grenada, 
Russia, Bermuda, and the Philippine Islands, Tobacco dust was inefficient 
and tobacco extract gave indifferent results. Black Leaf 40 and nicotine 
were usually effective, but other control methods were available. 

San Jos e scale. --This scale insect, Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst,, 
has been treated with nicotine since 1901 induce n's land, the United States, 
India, and Hungary, Nicotine with soap, lime-sujfur, or an oil was usually 
effective against the immature scales. 

Oys ter s hell jscale, — Nicotine sulfate with soap or lime-sulfur has 
been used succes'sfiTlly"" since 1916 against the young of the oystershell scale 
(Lepl dosaphes ulmi (L.)) in the United States and Canada 

Other coccids, — About 42 other species of coccids were tested with 
nicotine, and it was found effective against all but 4, The best spray or 
dipping solution was kerosene emulsion containing nicotine. 



* 12- 



Species Belonging to Other Families of Homoptera 

"Whiteflies .--Seven species of Aleyrodidae were tested with nicotine, 
which, was nearly always inefficient. 

Other species .— Thirteen species of the Cicadidae, Fulgoridae, 
Cercopidae, and Menihracidee were treated vdth nicotine. It was efficient 
against a cicada, 4 fulgorids, 3 froghoppers, and 1 treehopper, 

II. HETEF.OPTERA 

Leaf Bugs, or Capsids (Miridae) 

Apple redbug , — Nicotine has been used against Lygidea mend ax Reut. 
since 1911, when sprays containing Black Leaf (1 part to 65), Nico-Fume 
(l to 700 ), and Black Leaf 40 (l to 816) were found effective. This species, 
as well as other capsids, is difficult to control, and nicotine is efficient 
only against the nymphs. Sprays containing 40-percent nicotine sulfate 
(l to 800 ) and soap or lime- sulfur usually gave good control. A 4.7-percent 
nicotine dust was also said to have been efficient. This important economic 
species was treated in New York, Ohio, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Nova 
Scotia. 

Tarnish ed plant bugs . — These species, Lyg us oblineatus (Say) and 
L. prat en s is (L, ), have been treated with nicotine since 1915 in Canada, 
the United States, Germany, and England. Nicotine in various forms was 
recommended, hut in the United States there was no complete control, although 
a 5-percent nicotine dust and a nicotine sulfate spray (l to 200 ) plus soap 
were used. 

Dark redbug.— Since 1911 H eterooordyl us ma 1 in us Reut. has been 
treated wi€h nicotine in New York and Pennsylvania, busts were as good as 
sprays. 

Fea r plant bug ,— This insect, Lygus co mmunis Knight, has also been 
called the green apple bug and false tarnished plant bug. It infests apple 
and pear trees in Mew York, Nova Scotia, and Ontario, Nicotine has been 
used against it since 1916, a 5-percent dust (2 percent aotual nicotine) 
having been better than nicotine sprays, , 

Apple caps id bug . — Since 1916 PI esiocor i:: rug icollis (Fall.) has 
been controlled with nicotine (usually 98 percent) plus soap in England, 
Denmark, and Holland* 

Othe r caps ids .— According to the literature nicotine was used on 
a small scale against 32 other capsids. Eight of these species belong to 
the genus Lyj-rus, one of which, Lygus pabulinus (L.), seems to be an 
important economic species, for it was treated with nicotine in Ireland, 

Denmark, England, and Germany. 



- 13 - 



Lacebugs, or Tingitids (Tingitidae) 

Pear lacebug, — The bug Stephajiitis Pyri ( F, ) v/as the first insect to 
be treated with nicotine, the dete ancfpTace being 1690 in France, It is a 
serious pest of pear trees ir. Europe. In France tobacco fumes and nicotine 
sprays were used; <Ln Germany tobacco leaves were burned beneath the trees 
and nicotine solutions wore used; in Sweden tobacco extracts were found 
successful; in Italy phenolated tobacco extracts with soap were recommended; 
and -in Russia both spraying and dusting with nicotine were successful. 

Rhododendr on^ l ac ebu g ,-»Thi s insect, Stephanitis rhododendri (Horv, ), 
appears to be an important pest in Holland and France, where nicotine in 
various forms Tvas recommended against it, 

Other tingitids .—Nine other tingitids v/ere tested once, and nicotine 
v/as unsatisfactory against three of them. 

Chinch Dug and Other Lygaeids (Lygaeidae) 

Since 1913 nicotine has been applied against the chinch bug ( Blissus 
leucopterus (Say)) in the United States and Canada. Black Leaf 40 and soap, 
nicotine oTeate and soap, and nicotine sulfate dusts v/ere the forms mostly 
used. 

Eight other lygaeids were tested, but the records about them are meager. 

Squash Bug and Other Coreids (Coreidae) 

Nicotine has been applied against the squash bug (Anas a tristis (Deg.)' 
since- 1915 in the United States. It kills only the nymphs, particularly the 
young ones. One writer recommended 40-percent nicotine sulfate (1 to 600) 
or a 10-percont Nicodust, whereas another writer said a 3-peroent nicotine 
dust cr spray should be used. 

Three other coreids are mentioned but there is little information 
about tli em, 

Pentatomid Bugs (Pentatomidae) and other Hpteroptera 

Under this heading nine species are mentioned, but no definite state- 
ment has been made about nicotine being effective against them. 

in, ?;iysauo?tera, of thpjps 

Cjiijo^i juries, — Since 1G98 this species, Thrips tfbaci Lind. , has been 
controlled wita nieoxine* It was treated in the V ■.,/•■- ; .tes, Fweden, 
Australia, Canada;, Earhados, Bermuda, Germany, .: ..n Maurice, 

Crimea, and Fn gland. Nicotine sprayc v/ere mostly usee! and vzsc usually 
effective-, Hicotine dusts and nicotine tannate v:ere aiso emu' eyed, 

Greonhouse thrips ,-~This species, H eliothrip s haepyo it hoidalis (Bouche), 
has been coLxricUleaTsi nc e 1868 with tobacco products". It v/as treated in 
France, Germany, Luxembourg, the United States, Argentina, Sweden, Belgium, 
Brazil, and Italy, 



- 14 - 



Pear thri ps. — This thrips, Taeniothrip s inconsequens (Uzel), has 
been controlled Toth nicotine since 1909* It was treated in the United 
States, Canada, and Norway. 

Othe r speci es of thrip s, — About 36 other species were treated with 
tobacco products, but there are only a few records regarding each of them. 
Nicotine v/as effective against most of these, including the grape thrips 
( Drepan othrips reuteri Uzel), Florida flower thrips ( Frankliniella cephalica 
(Crawf.~JT, bean thrips (Hu rco thrips f asciatus (Perg. )Tji " sugarbeet thrips , " 
rcd-banded thrips ( Selo no thrips rubrocinct us (Girard)), and citrus thrips 
( Scirto t hrips citri (Moult.)), but it had little value as a control for 
the gladiolus thrips ( T aeni o thri ps simplex (Morison)). 

IV. DIPT ERA 

Tobacco products were tried against numerous species of Diptera, and 
the use of nicotine gave a good decree of control but v/as not found practi- 
cal against parasites on cattle because of the toxicity of nicotine to the 
host. It v/as effective against the following: Cattle grubs, Hypoderma 
b o vi s^ (Deg.) and K. 1 in ea turn (De Vill.)j various species of mosquitoes; 
the pear midge ( Contarinia pyrivora (Riley) )j the chrysanthemum gall midge 
( D i a r t h r o n o my i a hypogae a Lowe ) ) j the boxwood leaf miner (Monarthro palp us 
buxi Lab. ) ; various species of mushroom flies belonging to the Mycetophilidae 
and Phoridae; and the spinach leaf miner ( Pegomya hyoscyami (Panz,)). 

V. HYMENOPTERA 

With regard to the Hymenoptera, the use of nicotine has been recom- 
mended as a control against only the sawflies, the larvae of which are slug- 
like insects. The following v/ere the species most commonly treated: Apple 
sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug), cherry fruit sawfly (K, cookei (Clarke)), 
and Neurotomy nemo ralis 1T.TT 

VI . CCLEOPTERA 

T©bs.eeo products were tried against numerous speeies of beetles 
belonging to many families, but nicotine was found effective against only 
a comparatively few species. These included several species of flea beetles 
in Europe, reported long before 1934, and two species of cucumber beetles 
in America, Nicotine is still used as one of the controls against the latter. 

VII. LEPIDOPTERA 

Grap ev ine moths . —According to the literature being summarized, the 
vine moths, Phalonia amb i guel la Kbn # ) and Polychr osis botrana (Schif f. ), 
which are serious pests in continental Europe and Northern Africa, were first 
tested with nicotine in 1870. Prior to 1915 the use of nicotine v/as the 
recommended control against both generations of moths, but by 1917 tobacco 
products were ■ too costly and almost unobtainable because of the First World 
War, and it became necessary to find a cheap and effective insecticide. By 
1925 the use of lead arsenate had become the recommended control against 
the first generation of these moths while nicotine v/as still used against 
the second generation. 



15 



Codl ing moth ,. — Nicotine was first tried in 1897 against the codling 
moth (Carpocapsa pomonella (L. ) ) , which' is a serious post wherever apple 
trees are grown. From this year up to October 1934, inclusive, 133 abstracts 
in Circular E-392 pertain to the use of nicotine against this moth, although 
the nicotine was often usod in an arsenical s"pray mixture primarily to con- 
trol aphids or certain bugs. In 1916 nicotine sulfate was reported in 
Washington State to have been as efficient as lead arsenate. This report 
caused considerable experimental work to be done during the next 12 years. 
In 1928 the Washington entomologists still claimed that nicotine sulfate could 
be used as a substitute for lead arsenate in the second and third cover sprays, 
although this combination' was somewhat less effective. 

Nicotine in combination with oil emulsion was apparently first tried 
against the codling moth in 1928, There are 70 abstracts which discuss this 
combination. It was generally agreed that nicotine sulfate coiabined v/ith 
mineral-oil emulsion was a good substitute for lead arsenate. The following 
statements give some of the details: In 1929 and 1930 this combination proved 
as effective as the arsenate. The combination of oi 1 (1 to 100) and nico- 
tine sulfate (l/2 pint to 100 gallons) gave a control of the codling moth 
equal to that of 1 pound of lead arsenate to 50 gallons of water. In 1931 
reports from nine investigators were compared. Some said that the oil- 
nicotine combination gave results equal to those obtained with lead arsenate, 
while others did not get such good results. It was as effective as the 
arsenate in preventing entry into the fruit and was decidedly more effective 
than the arsenate in preventing "stings," In 1932 the nicotine-oil spray 
combined both ovicidal and larvicidal properties for the codling moth and 
also controlled aphids and mites. This combination, used for several years 
in the late cover sprays, always gave excellent results which were approxi- 
mately equal to those of lead arsenate. In 1953 the trend of results 
slightly favored lead arsenate. In 1934 the consensus of opinion was that 
lead arsenate was superior, but nicotine-oil was very close to it and was 
the most promising substitute. 

There is 1 abstract about nicotine bentonite, 2 about nicotine dust, 
3 about nicotine oleate, and 25 about nicotine tannate. The last gave 
extremely variable results, ranging from no good or not satisfactory to 
better than lead arsenate for use against the codling moth. 

Other moths, — Nicotine was tried against other moths and it was 
effective against" many of them but was rarely recommended as a control 
because there were usually other better and more economical insecticides, 

VIII. ACAEINA 

. Red spider s, — The common red spiders (Tetranychus spp,) have been con- 
trolled since 1898 with nicotine combined with other materials such as oil, 
strong soap, or lime-sulfur. They were treated in Germany, Switzerland, 
Bohemia, Australia, the United States, Argentina, England, Canada, Russia, 
and Italy, 

European redjriite. — This species, Pa rate trar.ychus pilosus (C. & F.), 
was successfully treated in most instances with nicotine in Sweden, Denmark, 
the United States, and England, but the nicotine was added to other materials. 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

Hllllililllll 

3 1262 09224 7013 

Cycl am en m ite .--This mite. Tar son emu s p al 1 id us Bank s_, was controlled 
in the United" States by using', Black. Leaf 40, nicotine" cleate, and tobacco 

dus"b|»\: "■ , '. ■ ; ' '■ .... ~\ 

Other mites on plants ,— There are a fev. r records on about two dozen 
other species of mites, but not all of them report successful control with 
nicotine, 

IX. EXTERNAL PAPASITES ON ANIMALS AND .MAN 

The mites and ticks, which are not insects, belong to the Acarina, 
the. sucking lice to Anoplura, the biting lice to Mallophaga, the fleas to 
Siphonaptera, and the flies to Diptera. The writer was unable to' use many 
of the abstracts in E-392 because they discuss lice without giving their 
scientific names. The word "lice" includes the Anoplura, the Mallophaga, 
and the sheep louse or tick, which is really a fly. 

Mit es , --Nicotine sulfate was effective against Liponyssus sylviarium 
(C. & F, ), the chicken mite ( Der ma nyssus gal lime (Deg,), the mites Psoropte s 
communis Fuerst and P, ovis Her. on rabbits -and sheep, and the mange mites 
S aYc opte s scabiei Deg., S, equi Gerl., and S, g u is Gerl, on cattle, horses, 
and dogs. 

Ticks . --There is very little information on the use of nicotine on 
ticks. Nicotine was apparently effective against only the immature stages 
on cattle and sheep. It may bo applied to the vegetation and about kennels 
to kill the newly hatched ticks. 

Sucking lice ,— Five species arc mentioned. Nicotine fumigation was 
effective against the body louse ( Pediculus hu manu s corporis Deg,), Nico- 
tine is nob recommended because of its possible toxic features to humans 
or animals, 

Biting_ 1 ice .--Nicotine was used satisfactorily against-four out of 
five species , 

Fleas,— Only one species was mentioned by scientific name. Nicotine 
was usually effective against fleas When it was sprayed on vegetation and 
basement floors. 

Flies. — Nicotine was also effective against the sheep louse or tick 
( Melophagus ovinus (L.)) and the pigeoin fly (Pseudol ynchia canariensis (Macq.) 
in low concentrations, but at leant two dippings are required. Because of its 

absorption' and subsequent toxic qualities it is. not favored.